|How works Diskeeper on Windows2000 ?
Diskeeper is the only Microsoft certified defragmentation utility for Windows 2000.
Diskeeper 5.0 for Windows 2000 is backward compatible and comes equipped with three major technological
breakthroughs: 'Frag Guard' fragmentation prevention technology; automatic scheduling and network controls for
mixed Windows 95/98 and NT/2000 environments; and online directory consolidation.
'Frag Guard,' the first-ever fragmentation prevention technology, specifically designed to prevent fragmentation in
critical system files. In the heavily used Master File Table (MFT) and Paging File, in particular, fragmentation can
exact a severe toll on system I/O. 'Frag Guard' prevents system-crippling fragmentation by intercepting file
fragments and consolidating them before they arrive at the disk.
In addition, Diskeeper 5.0 for Windows 2000 is the only online network defragmenter to perform automatic, "Set-It
and Forget-It" scheduling to boost performance across mixed networks. This means that as well as functioning on
Windows 2000 servers and workstations, Diskeeper can be remotely loaded, scheduled and run on Windows 95/98
and NT machines.
Another technological first for Diskeeper is safe online defragmentation of NTFS directories. This breakthrough
technology evolved as a result of the close development partnership that exists between Microsoft and Executive
Software. After co-developing the API's that make safe online defragmentation a reality on Windows NT, Microsoft
has now modified the Windows 2000 API's to permit reliable online directory consolidation, eliminating the need to
do this at boot time.
In keeping with the unique standards set for Windows 2000, Diskeeper 5.0 is fully compatible with the new Microsoft
Installer technology that permits installation without reboot, as well as comprehensive monitoring of all system
Diskeeper supports FAT 16, FAT 32, NTFS, 64-bit computing and encrypted files.
|Do I need to install Internet Explorer ?
No, you don't have to install Internet Explorer.
Diskeeper has been recently redesigned to fit in with Microsoft's NT common system management initiative. This
means that Diskeeper is now a "snap-in" for the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). The MMC requires the
use of some Internet Explorer components.
Windows 2000 already has these elements installed, so their installation during Diskeeper is not be required with a
Windows 2000-compatible version of Diskeeper.
We realize that some individuals or companies may have policies regarding the non-use of Internet Explorer on
their NT systems. Our engineers have developed a Component Pack which you can install as a substitute for
Internet Explorer. Diskeeper 5.03 and above come with the Component Pack on the CD you can also download the
Component Pack from our web site.
You can find out more about MMC here: http://www.microsoft.com/management/mmc/
|What about dual booting NT4 and Windows 2000 ?
When you install Windows 2000 on an NT4 machine it converts all NTFS drives on the machine to the Windows
2000 version (NTFS5).
If you attempt to defragment NTFS5 partitions from NT4 there is a possibility of corruption. The Diskeeper 5 NT4
edition checks the NTFS version and doesn't run if it finds NTFS5. This is to protect your data. Although SP4
includes a driver that allows you to read these partitions it does not provide the support for defragmenting files.
On a dual boot with NT4 and Windows 2000 you have to defragment from Windows 2000.
Diskeeper 5.03 and above for Windows 2000 supports the new NTFS as well as FAT16 and FAT32.
The Windows 2000 Resource Kit gives detailed information about the differences between NTFS5 and earlier
versions and information about dual booting NT4 and Windows 2000. See the section on File Systems.
|What is MMC?
Diskeeper has been recently redesigned to fit in with Microsoft's NT common system management initiative. This
means that Diskeeper is now a "snap-in" for the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). The MMC requires some
additional components to run. These components are contained in Internet Explorer 4.1 or higher. If you do not have
Internet Explorer 4.1 or above installed you can install a Component Pack which will provide the same functionality.
The Component Pack is supplied on the Diskeeper 5.3 and above CD.
The installation of the MMC and Internet Explorer (or Component Pack) and DCOM are all needed to run Diskeeper
in its current configuration. Windows 2000 will already have these elements installed.
The purpose of Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is to create a set of integrated tools that each perform a
specific task. On its own MMC is only a 'container' (known as the 'tools host'). Snap-Ins are extensions to the host
that add management functionality. By using Snap-Ins together, you can create administration consoles exactly
tailored to your needs. Because these groupings of Snap-Ins can be saved, they can also be forwarded to others
delegated to perform a specific task. When reopened, it will be exactly as it was last saved.
All Windows NT administration tools are being redeveloped as MMC Snap-Ins.
The System Management Server Admin Console user interface is being redeveloped as a series of MMC Snap-Ins.
On the Windows operating system this will become the way to build management applications. Using the console
paradigm will not only make components easier to manage, it will also permit tool integration with products from
MMC complements enterprise platforms, by providing well-integrated, task-based management functions that
have the potential to be integrated into the platform in exactly the way management applications are integrated
MMC has the potential to make a great integration point for the user interface components of future enterprise
You can find out more about MMC here:
|What is DCOM ?
The Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) is a protocol that enables software components to communicate
directly over a network in a reliable, secure, and efficient manner. Previously called "Network OLE," DCOM is
designed for use across multiple network transports, including Internet protocols such as HTTP.
DCOM is based on the Open Software Foundation's DCE-RPC specification and will work with both Java applets
and ActiveX® components through its use of the Component Object Model (COM).
DCOM is used for communication between the various components that make up Diskeeper. For example, when a
Diskeeper defragmentation operation is scheduled to begin, the Diskeeper controller module uses DCOM to send a
message to the defragmentation engine to begin the defragmentation process.
He foremost design goal for Diskeeper was to make sure that no data is ever lost.
To ensure the safe movement of files on Windows 2000/NT 4.0 systems, Diskeeper uses mechanisms built into the
Windows 2000/NT 4.0 operating systems that were designed developed and implemented in partnership with
These mechanisms are accessed through exposed API (Application Program Interfaces) calls to safely defragment
files online, while Windows is running. The APIs are designed to safely move (defragment) files on both the NTFS
and FAT 16 and, on Windows 2000, FAT32 file systems.
The APIs are a part of the native Windows 2000 and Windows NT 4.0 file systems and have been coded, tested and
certified by Microsoft to ensure that no data loss or corruption occurs when a file is moved.
Since defragmentation involves the movement of files, these APIs were provided so that files could be moved
safely, without violating operating system safety measures.
They are fully synchronized with all file I/O and memory management functions of Windows 2000 and Windows NT
4.0. You can even safely defragment files that are open and currently being modified.
By using these built-in mechanisms, Diskeeper maintains cache coherency, file security and permissions
information, and file content integrity no matter how fragmented the files on the disk are.
Diskeeper was designed to err on the side of caution. In other words, it only moves a file on the volume when it is
absolutely certain that no data will be lost, including file attributes. The only change to file attribute-type information
is the physical location of the file on the volume. None of the file dates are changed and no other fields in the file
record header are used to store Diskeeper information.
The contents of data files are never modified under any circumstances
Only one file is processed at a time, not the whole disk volume
Each processing pass is independent of the other passes
No information is stored on any other device or in a "scratch space".
Diskeeper accesses a file in such a way that no user access can conflict with Diskeeper during the critical portion of
the relocation process.
File relocation is aborted if any error is encountered, leaving the file in its original state.
If anything causes your computer to crash while Diskeeper is running, or if you abort the Diskeeper defragmentation
run in the middle of the file relocation process, no data is ever at risk.
On Windows NT 4.0 computers, Service Pack 3 or higher is required for Diskeeper to operate properly.
There are no conflicts or reported problems with Service Packs 3, 4, 5 or 6. It is not expected that there would be
any problems with future service pack releases for either NT4 or Windows 2000. Since Diskeeper uses the
operating system's built in APIs for critical file movement functions, service packs keep Diskeeper updated with
any changes in the operating system automatically.
This approach safeguards your investment in Diskeeper.
|Does NTFS fragment?
Yes! NTFS does fragment.
When NTFS writes a file to the disk, it leaves a free space after it, room for the file to grow into without fragmenting. It
works well, except that when the disk gets about half full, the end of the disk is reached, and any further files have to
be written into the spaces that were left for file growth.
This is also why a backup/reformat/restore, will usually result in a fragmented disk.
This also applies to strip sets. There is a myth that strip sets or RAID 5 does not fragment. This is false. Usually
these kind of disk sets will fragment badly because they will often be large partitions that are used to provide storage
space on a network. The high volume of file creation, expansion and deletion will fragment the files and free space
and will slow down disk access.
|Manual Uninstall on Windows 2000
|Before you begin any editing of the registry, always update your ERD.
The following are the steps to remove DISKEEPER manually:
1. From the Desktop, click START, then RUN. Type REGEDT32 for the command and click OK
2. Select the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE hive and go to: SOFTWARE/EXECUTIVE SOFTWARE
3. Highlight the version of DISKEEPER you are using and delete the key
4. Now go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
SOFTWARE/Microsoft/Windows/CurrentVersion/Installer/Products and delete the key
Note: If you get the message
"Registry Editor could not delete the key currently selected. The key, or one of its subkeys does not give you
Click OK and then from the Security menu change the permissions settings to Everyone Full Control. Then you will
be able to delete the key.
5. Next go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
SOFTWARE/Microsoft/Windows/CurrentVersion/Uninstall and delete the key
6. Under HKELY_LOCAL_MACHINE,
delete the DISKEEPER key.
7. Select the HKEY_CURRENT_USER hive and go to
SOFTWARE/Microsoft/Installer/Products and delete the key
8. Under Installer, double click Features and delete the key
9. Close the registry, reboot the system and open Windows NT Explorer.
10. From where DISKEEPER was installed, delete the Executive Software directory in Program Files and all
11. On the boot disk, delete the Diskeeper directory in this location:
\ Documents And Settings\ All Users\ Start Menu\ Programs
12. If you want to reinstall the built in defragmenter go to the \winnt\inf directory and right click on dfrg.inf. Select
The account from which you install and run Diskeeper must be a member of the Administrators group (and
Domain Admin, if applicable), but no other local groups; domain.administrators and domain.users are OK, but
not Power Users, Backup Operators, and so on.
If you make a change to the group membership of your account, log out and back in
1. Start Control Panel
2. Double-click Add/Remove Programs
3. Click Diskeeper
4. Click Add/Remove, and follow the prompts to remove Diskeeper
5. Delete the folder Diskeeper was installed in.
6. Remove any files in the /Temp folder on your boot partition.
7. Install Diskeeper from your CD or downloaded ZIP file
8. If you upgraded from am earlier version, such as 3.0 to 4.0, install that upgrade now
9. Install the upgrade
10. Install the update.
|Can Diskeeper defragment open files ?
Diskeeper can defragment most files even when they are open and being modified.
Files that are open for exclusive access, including the pagefile, cannot be moved or defragmented by Diskeeper.
This can be a problem, because the fragments of these files, being immovable, can prevent Diskeeper from
consolidating free space enough to defragment the entire partition. You can get around most of this by selecting a
time when you can have exclusive use of the system, then arrange that no applications start automatically on
In Control Panel/Services, find any applications that start as services and disable them, first noting their existing
settings so that you can restore them later. Then set the pagefile, if any, on the partition to zero size, both initial and
maximum. Now reboot and immediately run Diskeeper in the manual mode. As soon as it has finished, restore the
original pagefile values and the Services settings, and reboot.
|Files still fragmented
Although there is plenty of free space some of the files on a NTFS partitions are still fragmented after running
This could be because of the permissions settings on the disk.
For Diskeeper to have access to move a file both SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR need to have full control over
the file and the directory it is in.
This is because the Diskeeper service runs under the Administrator account, and System access is necessary to
defragment files safely. This is a security feature that is governed by the Windows NT/2000 C2 security
Check that the permissions in the root directory of each NTFS partition have "Type of Access" set to "Full Control"
for both Administrator and System. These settings should not conflict with any security plan you have in place,
since membership in the Administrator group should be very restricted, and System access applies only to the
operating system, not users.
The account you are logged into must be a member of the Administrators group (and Domain Admin, if applicable),
but no other groups.
Setting permissions on the root of the drive:
1. Start EXPLORER
2. Right click the root directory for the partition.
3. Click PROPERTIES, click SECURITY, then click PERMISSIONS
4. Highlight ADMINISTRATOR
5. Set TYPE OF ACCESS to FULL CONTROL
6. If SYSTEM is not listed, click ADD and select SYSTEM
7. Highlight SYSTEM
8. Set TYPE OF ACCESS to FULL CONTROL
9. DE-SELECT the REPLACE PERMISSIONS ON EXISTING FILES check box (it is checked by default)
10. Click OK
Note: On an existing partition, if you have modified security settings on any subdirectories, then the "Replace
permissions ..." options will overwrite the old settings. If you have modified the settings, for user directories for
example, you will not want to overwrite them. Use the method below to add the needed settings to the existing ones.
However if this is a new partition or you are certain that you can overwrite existing settings go ahead and use these
options and skip the 'cacls' step below.
Adding System and Administrator to Sub Directories.
This procedure uses a utility called CACLS.exe which is normally in the \winnt\system32 directory. You can find
more information about this utility in Windows/ Help. Type 'cacls' in the index tab.
1. Open a command line window and go to the root of the drive you want to change the permissions on.
2. Type the command:
cacls * /e /t /g "YOUR_DOMAIN\Domain Admins":F Administrators:F SYSTEM:F
SPECIAL NOTE: If you see this message: "Unable to perform a security operation on an object which has no
associated security" you are executing this from a FAT partition.
This command will EDIT (/e) the ACLs rather than REPLACE them and recursively apply them (/t) to
subdirectories. Any number of ACCOUNT:PERM may follow the GRANT (/g) switch.
This option is only available in the Windows NT/2000 Workstation and Windows NT/2000 Server versions of
Use the Boot-Time Defragmentation option in the Action menu to:
Defragment the directories on a disk volume and consolidate them into a single location.
Defragment the paging file (if one exists on the volume).
Defragment the master file table (MFT).
Boot-time defragmentation opens up larger areas of contiguous free space for new file creation and modification.
Click here to see an example of the Boot-Time Defragmentation dialog box.
Several points about Boot-Time Defragmentation:
The Boot-Time Defragmentation feature relies on having a contiguous free space in which to move the directories
and/or paging file on your disk volume. Therefore, it is important to run Diskeeper in either the Set It and Forget It or
Manual Defragmentation mode before running the Boot-Time Defragmentation.
Boot-Time Defragmentation moves the directories and/or paging file to the first available free space into which they
will fit. This can be any location on the volume.
Boot-Time Defragmentation is a one-time operation. After it runs on a volume, it is not automatically reset to run
again. You must set it each time you want it to run on a volume.
|Frag Guard Overview
Frag Guard (in the Windows NT 4 and Windows 2000 versions only) is a breakthrough new feature for Diskeeper.
Frag Guard and the Diskeeper Boot-Time defragmentation function combine to address the defragmentation of two
critical sections of an NTFS volume, the Master File Table (MFT) and the paging file, and keeps them that way.
Frag Guard has an online mechanism that minimizes MFT and paging file fragmentation, greatly reducing the need
for boot-time defragmentation runs. This mechanism also monitors the fragmentation levels of the MFT and paging
file, and automatically sets a boot-time defragmentation operation to run when either of these levels exceeds a
threshold that you set. The boot-time defragmentation will only occur during a time period you specify.
The dialog box that controls the Frag Guard settings is displayed during setup, but can also be accessed later from
the Action menu.
Note that in order for Frag Guard to provide any benefit on most volumes, it is necessary for you to run a full
Boot-Time defragmentation of the volume. This includes defragmenting the MFT and paging file, as well as
defragmenting and consolidating the directories. This manual Boot-Time defragmentation run "clears the way" to
allow Frag Guard to fully function.
|MFT Frag Guard
Frag Guard has an online mechanism that prevents MFT fragmentation, greatly reducing the need for boot-time
defragmentation runs. This mechanism also monitors the fragmentation level of the MFT, and automatically sets a
boot-time defragmentation operation to run when either of these levels exceeds a threshold that you set. The
boot-time defragmentation will only occur during a time period you specify.
When enabled, Frag Guard ensures the MFT can grow in a contiguous manner. If the MFT does become
fragmented, the Diskeeper Boot-Time feature is called upon to restore the MFT to a defragmented condition.
On any disk volume that has a fragmented MFT, first run a full Boot-Time Defragmentation of the volume to "clear
the way" for Frag Guard to function fully.
The dialog box that controls the Frag Guard settings is displayed during setup, but can also be accessed later from
the Action menu.
Disable on ALL Volumes
When this option is selected, Diskeeper will not attempt to keep the MFT defragmented online. However, you still
have the option to defragment the MFT at boot-time.
Enable on ALL Volumes
When this option is selected, Diskeeper minimizes MFT fragmentation online, on all local NTFS volumes. It does
this by ensuring the MFT is contiguous, and by extending it as needed when new files are written to the disk volume.
Enable Individually on Each Volume
This option allows you to select certain NTFS disk volumes for online Frag Guard processing of the MFT, while
excluding others. To select one or more disk volumes for online Frag Guard processing, highlight the appropriate
drive letter(s) in the list box and click Set.
List of NTFS Volumes
This box contains a list of all NTFS volumes that are visible to Diskeeper. This box is activated by selecting the
Enable individually on each volume option above it. To enable MFT Frag Guard on a volume, select it and click Set.
To disable a previously enabled volume, select it and then click Clear.
Click Set to activate MFT Frag Guard on the selected disk volume(s).
Click Clear to disable MFT Frag Guard on the selected disk volume(s).
|Set it and Forget it Mode
The Set It and Forget It mode allows Diskeeper to run automatically in the background while users and other
processes are active on the system. To run Diskeeper in the Set It and Forget It mode, first create a schedule
specifying the times Diskeeper either will or will not be allowed to run on a specific disk volume, then start the
scheduled defragmentation job. After a defragmentation schedule is created for a volume, Diskeeper will follow that
schedule until you explicitly stop it. The defragmentation job will run as scheduled, whether you are logged onto the
computer or not. Also, multiple Set It and Forget It defragmentation jobs can be run at the same time on separate
To stop a Set It and Forget It defragmentation job, open the Set It and Forget It dialog box from the Action menu,
highlight the disk volume for which you want to stop the schedule, then click Stop.
By default, Set It and Forget It defragmentation jobs are run at "Lowest" Windows priority. As an option, you can
change the priority at which Diskeeper runs for Set It and Forget It jobs. To do this, select the Priority option from the
Action menu. Note that raising the priority of Diskeeper jobs can impact the performance of other tasks on your
system running at the same time, but will reduce the amount of time needed to defragment your disk volumes.
If an NTFS partition is missing from the partition list in the scheduling dialog it may be because of the permissions
settings at the root are not set correctly. To change the settings do this:
1. Start EXPLORER Right click the root directory for the partition.
2. Click PROPERTIES, click SECURITY, then click PERMISSIONS
3. Highlight ADMINISTRATOR Set TYPE OF ACCESS to FULL CONTROL
4. If SYSTEM is not listed, click ADD and select SYSTEM
5. Highlight SYSTEM Set TYPE OF ACCESS to FULL CONTROL
6. DE-SELECT the REPLACE PERMISSIONS ON EXISTING FILES check box (it is checked by default)
7. Click OK
If Diskeeper still does not display all partitions, you will need to force Diskeeper to refresh its list of partitions. To do
1. Close Diskeeper, if it is open
2. Go to Control Panel / Services and stop the Diskeeper service.
3. Delete the file diskeep.ctl in the Diskeeper directory.
4. Launch Diskeeper from the start menu.
Diskeeper will restart the automatic service and recreate the diskeep.ctl file re-scanning the partitions as it does so
to create a new partition list. The missing partitions will now appear in Diskeeper. Note that you will need to set up
the schedules again as this procedure will delete the settings.
Diskeeper doesn't defragment your partitions as you expect it to and these FAQs don't help you to resolve the
problem you are welcome to send a report to tech support.
Do the following:
1. Run Diskeeper manually about 6-12 times on the drive in question.
2. When that's completed, maximise the GUI, capture a screen dump of it and save it. One way to do this is to press
Alt + PrintScreen to capture the screen to the clipboard and then paste into Paint and save.
3. Save the analysis file from the View Report/ Save dialog box.
Send an email at firstname.lastname@example.org and attach both files.
Let us know the version/build of Diskeeper (from the Action/About menu option) and which operating system you
are running Diskeeper on.
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